Flowering medium-sized deciduous trees with thin papery bark and egg-shaped pointed leaves, birch trees (genus Betula) are a popular choice. Fall colors on birch trees might be golden yellow, brilliant orange, or blazing red. The bark of common birch trees is white, silver, black, gray, or yellow in color and gets its name from the distinct hues.
The white birch, silver birch, and paper birch are common varieties of birch. The bark, leaves, and flowers of birch trees are typically used to identify them. For example, some species don’t peel, while others do have thin peeling bark that exfoliates in long strips.
Egg-shaped, triangular, or diamond-shaped birch leaves exist as well. The identification of common birch trees is the subject of this article. The finest sort of decorative tree for your garden landscape will be aided by photos and descriptions of birches.
Birch Tree Facts
The genus Betula belongs to the Fagales family of beech-oaks, and Birch trees are part of that genus. Birch trees have 35 to 60-foot-wide (10 – 18-meter) canopies, which grow between 40 and 70 feet (12 and 21 meters) tall. Little trees that don’t grow bigger than 30 feet (9 meters) in height are referred to as dwarf birch trees.
Birch (Betula) species number between 30 and 60, with North America having 18 of them. Birch thrives in damp ground in chilly, northern environments and is a short-lived tree. USDA zones 2 through 7 are the best places to grow birch trees.
Birch trees with single trunks and unevenly shaped canopies are found in some species. White-gray, red, or black bark emerges from the birch foliage as it climbs higher up the tree. Clumping birch trees with many trunks springing up from the ground are also present.
In addition to being suitable for residential landscapes, white birch trees are lovely. Density and strength are also qualities of birch wood. Skateboards, plywood, and loudspeaker cabinets are all made out of birch wood. Additionally, because it burns well even when wet, birch is excellent firewood.
Birch Tree Leaves
The tips of birch tree leaves are pointed and serrated. Birch tree leaves are triangular or egg-shaped with a rounded base and serrated edges, as seen on the right picture. Between 2 and 3 inches (5 and 7.5 cm) long, glossy green birch leaves grow. On branches, the small leaves are alternately arranged. Birch leaves become brilliant hues of yellow, red, and orange in the fall.
Between birch species, there are some minor differences in leaf shape. The leaf margins of white birch trees, for example, are more prominently serrated. Diamond-shaped river birch leaves are more common than triangular-shaped gray birch leaves.
Birch tree bark is usually white, silver, or red in color. Most birch trees have a bark that has horizontal black streaks (known as lenticels) with horizontal dark streaks. The paper-like texture and peeling property of birch tree bark is well-known. During the winter, the peeling bark on birch trees adds to their decorative appeal. The most common varieties of birch trees for gardens are those with white bark.
Birch tree flowers are called catkins, and they are little, insignificant clusters of flowering spikes. At the same time as the leaves appear, birch trees bloom in the spring. Male birch trees have 1.2″ (3 cm) long blooms, whereas female trees have 0.4″ to 0.8″ (1 – 2 cm) long blooms.
How to Identify Birch Tree
The most reliable ways to determine birch tree species are through bark and leaf shape. Birch trees with their peeling bark, which may be white, gray, or yellow in color, are easy to identify. On the light-colored bark, you’ll see horizontal diamond-shaped raised markings. leaves have jagged-looking edges and are generally triangular in shape.
Birch Trees vs. Aspen Trees — How to Tell Them Apart
The trees and aspen trees have a lot in common (left). Birch trees and aspens have slender white or gray trunks that appear similar from afar. Birches have peeling bark, whereas aspen trees have rough, fissured bark, so while looking up close, you can see the difference.
The leaves of birch trees and aspen trees may help you identify them. The serrated edges of birch leaves are often triangular or spear-shaped. The heart-shaped leaves of aspen trees have finely serrated margins. Birch leaves are also longer than aspen leaves, having a “V” formation.
Aspen leaves have less serrated edges than birch leaves and are typically rounder and shorter.
Birch Trees in the Fall
Birch trees are deciduous trees with stunning decorative appeal in the autumn foliage. In the autumn, the leaves of birch trees shift from a lustrous green to dazzling yellow. The golden yellow to warm autumn hues of orange, bronze, and red in birch tree fall colors. The bark of certain birch trees becomes golden in color like the leaves.
Types of Birch Trees
Let’s examine the most frequent kinds of birch trees seen in woods and residential parks and gardens in further depth.
White Birch Tree (Betula pubescens)
The white birch tree has woody, papery peeling bark and ovate-shaped fuzzy leaves. It is Betula pubescens. The tallest White Birch trees reach heights of 30 to 65 feet (10 to 20 meters). The tree has a columnar appearance due to its slender white trunk with upright branches. The autumn colors of white birches are pleasant.
A tree native to Europe, white birch (Betula pubescens) The white birch tree is sometimes referred to as ‘downy birch,’ ‘hairy birch,’ or ‘moor birch,’ among other names. The silver birch (Betula pendula) is commonly confused with it. The downy shoots, on the other hand, are smooth.
White birch leaves have coarsely serrated edges, compared to other birch trees. In USDA zones 2 through 9, the white birch tree is a cold-hardy broadleaf tree. Full sun and moist, damp soil are ideal for the tree.
White birch tree leaves: The leaves are arranged alternately in simple designs. The rounded base and tapered tip of triangular leaves. Also, check for uneven serration around the edges. Birch leaves are 1.2 to 2.4 inches (3 to 6 cm) long and broad, with a thickness of 0.2 inch (5 mm).
White birch tree bark: Exfoliating papery strips of dull white thin bark.
White birch tree bark
Weeping Silver Birch Tree (Betula pendula)
The weeping silver birch (Betula pendula) has pendulous branches that give it a weeping appearance. In the autumn, the weeping silver birch’s glossy green leaves turn a golden yellow. With double-toothed margins, the leaves are ovate in shape.
The silvery-white bark of Betula pendula has contrasting horizontal black stripes and is known for its name. Large gardens with weeping silver birch trees as shade trees are ideal. As a landscape tree, the arching canopy, oval form, and slender silvery stem are stunning.
In USDA zones 2 through 7, silver birch trees may be planted. Deciduous trees thrive in well-draining soil and prefer full to partial sunlight. The lady of the woods, weeping silver birch, European white birch, warty birch, and lady birch are all names for the same tree.
Silver birch tree leaves: Shiny green leaves have jagged edges and are 2.5 inches (7 cm) long and shaped like a triangle. The hues of warm yellows in silver birch fall colors
Weeping silver birch leaves and male catkins
Silver birch tree bark: Young bark is golden brown with black markings, but it turns silvery white with age.
Weeping silver birch bark
Paper Birch Tree (Betula papyrifera)
The paper birch (Betula papyrifera) is a thin, white papery bark tree that grows in the northern United States and Canada. The golden autumn color and thin, exfoliating, smooth pure white bark of the paper birch tree add beauty to garden landscapes.
The margins of the leaves are irregularly serrated and egg-shaped. As a single stem tree or multi-stemmed tree, you can grow paper birch trees. Paper birch trees have a rounded crown and grow between 50 and 70 feet (15 and 21 meters) tall. Paper birch trees with multi-branches aren’t as tall.
USDA zones 2 through 7 are ideal for paper birch trees. Decorative paper birch trees may grow for up to 100 years in cold areas. They don’t live as long in warmer climates. Canoes were made from paper birch trees. The Betula papyrifera tree is also known as the canoe birch tree because of this. It’s called the white birch because of its brilliant white bark.
Paper birch tree leaves: Leaves with uneven serration along the margins are ovate in shape. In the autumn, the leaf blades turn from green to bright yellow, measuring 4″ (10 cm) long.
Paper birch tree bark: The orangey-brown bark beneath the peeling white bark is Strips.
Paper birch bark
Yellow Birch Tree (Betula alleghaniensis)
The yellow birch tree is a medium-sized tree with elongated oval, glossy green leaves, finely serrated edges, and beautiful golden hues in the autumn. It is native to theAlleghani Mountains. The foliage on this slender deciduous tree is conical in shape.
The bark of the tree becomes shaggy and papery, as well as a gray-brown color, starting with a lustrous bronze. Between 50 and 80 feet (15 to 24 meters) tall, yellow birch trees grow. The lovely bark, huge pointed leaves, and bright autumn hues have made yellow birches a year-long seasonal favorite.
Yellow birch trees are also known as swamp birch, gray birch, hard birch, and silver birch.
Yellow birch tree leaves: Irregularly serrated margins give lanceolate shape. In the autumn, hints of lime green appear in dark green birch leaves. The leaves of the long birch are between 7 and 12 cm (3 and 5 inches) long.
Yellow birch leaves
Yellow birch tree bark: When young, the bark is smooth and brown, but as it ages, it becomes silvery gray. The bark is stripped in thin layers and has a yellow-bronze hue.
Yellow birch bark
River Birch Tree (Betula nigra)
River birch trees have reddish-brown exfoliating bark, glossy green diamond-shaped leaves, and a pyramidal crown. They are a kind of clumping birch tree. Because of the hooked tips, this fast-growing river birch tree has smooth fuzzy twigs and unique buds among Betula trees.
Golden yellow is the color of river birch leaves. The black bear grows to be 80 to 100 feet (25–30 meters) tall with many slender trunks. In garden landscapes with damp soil, the clumping river birch thrives as an ornamental tree.
For hotter areas, the river birch is the best bet. The most heat-tolerant of all the Betula species is the river birch. Northern states, as well as Florida and Texas, have plenty of river birch. USDA zones 4 through 9 are home to this birch species. The river birch is also known as black birch, water birch, and clump river birch.
River birch tree leaves: Double-serrated edges on diamond-shaped leaves. The upper side of the birch leaves is lustrous green, while the underside is yellowish. All of the foliage turns brilliant yellow in the autumn.
River birch leaf
River birch tree bark: The tree trunk is covered with flaky bark that peels and curls. Pink, smooth, and glossy bark appears early on. The bark on a mature birch tree becomes reddish-brown and peels away, exposing orangey bark flakes.
River birch bark
Gray Birch Tree (Betula populifolia)
The gray birch tree, also known as Betula populifolia, is a fast-growing slender deciduous tree with several trunks. The triangular shape of gray birch leaves is elongated. The top surface of the ovate leaves is glossy, while the bottom surface is pale.
The bark of gray birch is light gray with black markings, and it has a whitish tint. Between 20 and 30 feet (6 and 10 meters) tall, gray birch trees are medium-sized trees.
The leaves of gray birch trees resemble those of poplar trees, and the scientific name for them is Betula populifolia. Paper birch trees may be confused with gray birch trees.
Look at the bark and leaves of each tree to tell them apart. The leaves have longer pointed tips than paper birch trees, and the bark of gray birch doesn’t peel.
Gray birch tree leaves: The leaves have a long, tapering tip. Gray birch trees may be identified by their double-toothed borders and lustrous upper leaves. It’s a plain yellow with no hue change.
Gray birch tree bark: Bark that doesn’t peel is chalky white-gray.
Sweet Birch Tree (Betula lenta)
The sweet birch tree is a deciduous tree with large, ovate-shaped leaves that have finely serrated edges. Sweet birch leaves, which can grow up to 6″ (15 cm) long, are among the largest in the Betula genus. Before the leaves emerge, pendulous flowers emerge in the spring.
The wintergreen scent in the twigs, bark, and leaves give the sweet birch tree its name. Other characteristics of the tree are referred to by the other frequent names for Betula lenta. The dark bark color of certain species, such as black birch and cherry birch, is another example.
And because of its aromatic wintergreen odor, it is known as “spice birch.” Birch trees may reach a height of 100 feet (30 meters). Birch trees, on the other hand, are usually around 50 to 80 feet (15 to 24 meters) high when grown in residential areas.
Sweet birch tree leaves: In the fall, the glossy leaves become a deeper green color, then light golden yellow. Between 2″ and 6″ (5–15 cm) long, the leaves are large. When crushed, the birch leaves release a mild fragrance.
Sweet birch leaves
Sweet birch tree bark: The bark of younger sweet birch trees is smooth and grayish, with thin horizontal lenticels. Older trees have hard, deeply fissured bark with irregular scaly plates, unlike other birch trees.
Sweet birch bark
Dwarf Birch Tree (Betula nana)
A close-up picture of the leaves of the dwarf birch tree (Betula nana) The rounded leaves with bluntly-toothed borders on this shrubby plant grow to 3 feet (1 meter) tall. During the fall, the leaves turn red and are light green. USDA zones 1 through 8 are ideal for dwarf birch trees, which thrive in arctic conditions.
Other names for Betula nana include “bog birch” and “arctic birch,” in addition to dwarf birch tree. The only distinction is that the leaf blades are joined to twigs by longer petioles.
The petioles of betula glandulosa leaves are longer.
Himalayan Birch Tree (Betula utilis)
The leaves are egg-shaped and slightly fuzzy, and the flowers are short conical. Himalayan birch tree (Betula utilis) The Himalayan birch has peeling bark that ranges in color from white, brown, or brownish-white, as do most birches. The bark is pinkish underneath and peels in thin sheets.
Between 2 and 4 inches (5 and 10 cm) are the glossy green birch leaves. The Himalayan birch grows to be up to 66 feet (20 meters) tall when it’s a big shrub or tree. A vase-shaped crown of green foliage contrasts with white bark is created by the single trunk branches extending low to the ground.
Himalayan birch tree bark
Japanese White Birch (Betula platyphylla)
The Betula platyphylla has grayish-white bark, spreading branches, and yellowish-green triangle leaves with tapered tips. It is sometimes known as the “Asian white birch.” To create a pyramidal crown, the 3-inch (7.5-cm) leaves have serrated edges and cover branches.
Zone 4 through 7 are ideal for the Japanese white birch. The ornamental birch tree grows to be 30 to 40 feet (10 to 12 meters) tall and 15 to 25 feet (4.5 to 7.6 meters) broad in colder climes.