Have you ever sat in the grass all afternoon, watching clouds pass by? Have you ever seen clouds that looked like dragons or birds in the sky?
Every day, clouds are a part of our sky, but you may not realize that each cloud has a narrative.
Clouds aren’t just created haphazardly. Clouds appear as they do due to a variety of factors. If you know what to look for, every different form and size of cloud can provide valuable information about the weather.
The cumulonimbus cloud, often known as thundercloud, is the topic of discussion here.
What are Cumulonimbus Clouds?
Cumulonimbus clouds (Cb) are commonly known as thunderstorm clouds, and the Latin word for “heap” means “thunderstorm.” Like cumulus clouds (Cu), they are vertical-growing clouds.
Cumulonimbus clouds, on the other hand, are significantly broader than the puffy forms of cumulus clouds. They’re denser and taller, with a rounded top. They may resemble a mountain or a tower, which can make them seem dangerous and looming.
Stormy weather is created by these clouds. Heavy rains, snowstorms, and even tornadoes are all examples. You may anticipate a weather phenomenon when you perceive a cumulonimbus cloud.
What Causes Cumulonimbus Clouds to Form?
The appropriate conditions must be fulfilled for a cumulonimbus cloud to develop.
The cloud comes together due to a combination of moisture, heat, and unstable air. The first requirement is that there be a substantial layer of turbulent air. When warm moist air meets cold, dry air, an unstable atmosphere is formed.
Second, the atmosphere must be wet and comfortable. When the air mass’s lowest layers are warmer or more humid than the surrounding air, they form. If the air is dry and chilly, they will not form. Cumulus clouds are more likely to form under those circumstances.
Lastly, moist air must be lifted using something. This might occur in a variety of ways. Convection is the most common method. Heating the layer of air closest to the ground causes convection.
Another explanation is the orographic uplift caused by rising ground forcing air upwards.
When the wind blows against a mountain or other significant geographic feature, orographic uplift occurs. The air mass is then pushed over the barrier by forcing it to rise. As a result of this, warm air rises above colder air, generating an upward force.
A weather front pushing the air upward or a large ascent might also produce this phenomenon. The interface between air masses of varying temperatures and humidity levels is known as a front. The cloud is formed when warm air is forced upwards into colder air.
Species of Cumulonimbus Clouds
Like all other types of clouds, there are different species of cumulonimbus clouds.
The Cumulonimbus calvus (Cb cal) is named after the Latin term “bald,” which refers to the cloud’s summit being puffier like a cumulus cloud. At the top of the cloud tower, water droplets have not frozen and have yet to form ice crystals.
The Latin word for “hairy” is Cumulonimbus capillatus (Cb cap).
The cloud’s summit is fibrous, with no anvil shape that we’re all used to. The first ice crystals have appeared in the water droplets. Rain has started or will start soon if you see this cloud.
Supplementary Features and Accessory Clouds
The cloud’s appearance and function are determined by supplementary features.
More than one supplementary feature may be attached to each type of cloud. Cumulonimbus clouds are accompanied by eight extra features.
- Arcus is a Latin word meaning “arch,” and it is a characteristic that forms along a gust front. It is also known as shelf clouds. Wind and a drop in temperature are both expected with an arcus cloud. In the weather community, it’s sometimes referred to as “the whale’s mouth.”
- The Latin term cau (cau) indicates “tail,” and it is seen attached to the cumulonimbus cloud’s wall cloud. This is a indication of a very powerful storm.
- This characteristic is only found in cumulonimbus clouds and is called incus (inc) – from the Latin term meaning “anvil.” Cloud accessories and looks are the quintessential cumulonimbus cloud. Be ready for a strong storm if the incus gets bigger.
- Mamma (mam) is a Latin term that means “breast,” and it can be seen on the cloud’s base. When cold air is carried through warmer air, it forms pouches, which are then formed.
- The murus is a dark cloud feature that extends from the cumulonimbus cloud’s bottom and comes from the Latin meaning “wall.” A wall cloud is what it’s called. These may form tornadoes when combined with a tuba feature.
- The cloud can release precipitation that falls to the ground, which is known as praecipitatio (pra). Rain, hail, sleet, snow, and other precipitation types are included.
- The Latin term “tub” is used to describe this characteristic, which is most recognized as a funnel cloud. The tuba can become a tornado when accompanied by a murus cloud. Large, rotating cumulonimbus clouds known as supercells are frequently accompanied by these characteristics.
- All types of precipitation that evaporate before landing on the earth are included in the Virga (vir) feature. Wispy streaks seem to be falling from the clouds. Because the wisps resemble tentacles, they’re also known as “jellyfish clouds.”
Cloud accessories are cloud features that are similar to supplementary clouds. They are, however, not associated with cloud development. It may be above, below, or around the parent cloud, depending on the accessory.
There may be more than one accessory cloud in a cloud. The four supplementary clouds linked with cumulonimbus clouds are as follows:
- A beaver tail is also called a flumen (flb), which means “river” in Latin. An inflow belt unattached from the wall cloud is the best way to describe a flumen. Tornadoes are connected to it, and it aids in the showers’ nourishment. Only Cb clouds contain Flumen.
- Pannus (pra) is a type of scud cloud that comes from the Latin term “rag.” Ragged tufts of cloud accessory clouds sit beneath the cloud base.
- A cap cloud that sits atop a growing cloud tower is known as a pileus (pil) in Latin. They’ll occasionally produce a rainbow-like effect because they’re made from ice crystals
The primary cloud is expanding quickly, and a storm is on the way, according to pileus clouds.
4.A horizontal cloud veil that hovers in the center of the parent cloud is known as velum (vel) in Latin meaning “veil.” It looks like a hula hoop when viewed from above.
Life Cycle of a Cumulonimbus Cloud
Cumulonimbus clouds have a lifespan, just like all other clouds.
Warm air rises as it collects moisture in the building process. The cloud condenses as it warms the air, continuing to rise and establish. The cloud rapidly ascends to the upper troposphere, gaining height.
Water droplets start to freeze together as they become bigger here. The cloud enters its mature phase when it reaches its maximum height. Precipitation starts to occur during this phase. Cold downdrafts are created by the falling precipitation.
Friction exists between the cloud and the cold downdrafts and warm updrafts. This results in a build-up of static electricity. Electrical discharge or lightning is created by static. The anvil-shaped cloud top begins to flatten out.
The heat of the updrafts is eventually cooled by the downdrafts’ cooling. The dissipation phase has started. The cloud dissipates as the strength of the updrafts wears off. It takes around half an hour to complete the whole process.
What Are the Effects of Cumulonimbus Clouds?
Cumulonimbus clouds are associated with a variety of weather conditions. Heavy rain, thunderstorms, hail, tornadoes, and snow storms are examples of these events.
These clouds may generate torrential rain and lightning if they develop quickly. Throughout the summer and monsoon season in the Southwest, they are frequently seen. The storm gets worse as the cloud grows bigger.
Hector the Convector
Hector the Convector has a cartoonish voice. Or a cloud in the sky that is actually a video game meant to teach youngsters about weather. A unique storm cloud!
Every day, a storm named Hector the Convector forms. From September through March, it takes place about 3 p.m.
In the Timor Sea, Hector develops over the Tiwi Islands off Australia’s North Coast. Perfect convection is allowed due to the shape of these islands. The ideal environment for a consistent storm is created by them.
The warm land is hit by cold sea breezes. The mechanism that produces a cumulonimbus cloud is created by this.
Each day isn’t like Hector. The storm is of the same nature and intensity. A massive cumulonimbus cloud dumps torrential rains in the same location, as seen above. It might be two humongous clouds or one big cloud. Yet, it seems to be in the same spot every time.
Pilots and mariners working in the vicinity of Hector were dubbed after him during WWII.
Hector has become a navigational landmark because of its consistent formation. It’s the first time a storm system has been used in this manner.
Can Planes Fly Through Cumulonimbus Clouds?
Pilots are taught to minimize the amount of time spent in cumulonimbus clouds, especially if they’re flying through them. Because of the strong, occasionally unexpected updrafts and downdrafts, this is the case. It may be difficult to maintain altitude, speed, and aircraft control in these turbulent air pockets.
Microbursts within the clouds pose a further danger. The direction of wind gusts quickly changes as a result. These microbursts may cause planes to fall into dangerous situations by pushing and pulling them. The pilot may have no control over these situations.
Ice and hail are also possible with cumulonimbus clouds. Clouds that are icing may harm the aircraft if it flies through them. Sensors can be obstructed by ice, resulting in navigation difficulties.
Ice can quickly accumulate and cause engine failure. On weather radar, hail is not visible. This makes avoiding it more difficult. Engines, windshields, and navigational equipment can all be badly damaged by hail.
Cloud-to-ground lightning flashes may cause vision loss and confusion. Electrical equipment, navigation systems, and communications systems can all be damaged by it.
When flying, it’s best to avoid the cumulonimbus cloud. Pilots should “remain on the upwind side of a cumulonimbus cloud and stay clear of it by at least 20 nautical miles,” even if they cannot avoid it completely.
Fun Facts about Cumulonimbus
- The lowest layer of the Earth’s atmosphere is known as the troposphere. This layer is where all of the weather we experience takes place. The top layer of cumulonimbus clouds may expand over the top and grow as high as this one.
- Cauda, flumen, murus, and incus characteristics may be found on cumulonimbus clouds alone.
- The largest cloud formations, cumulonimbus clouds, are known to break through into the stratosphere on occasion.
- The pyrocumulonimbus cloud (CbFg) is another name for Cumulonimbus flammagenitus. Above a strong heat source, such as a wildfire, this uncommon form of Cb forms.
- One of only two clouds that form vertically is the cumulonimbus cloud.
- Clouds of cumulonimbus may span the three layers of clouds: low, middle, and high. This is the only cloud that does it.
How long do cumulonimbus storms last?
Before dissipating, cumulonimbus clouds typically last around 20 to 30 minutes. Storms, on the other hand, can last for a long time.
How high is a cumulonimbus cloud?
At heights of 1,100 to 6,500 ft (335.28 to 1981.2 m), cumulonimbus clouds develop. They may fly at a height of up to 30,000 feet (9144 meters). Clouds reaching 69,000 feet (21,000 meters) or higher have been known as cumulonimbus clouds.