There are a variety of brown pine cone types, sizes, and hues. Pine tree species can be identified by the conical or cylindrical woody cones. The majority of pine cones are cone-shaped or have an egg shape. Some pine cones are more egg-shaped with woody spiny scales while others are long and cylinder-like. Barrel-shaped pine cones with broad scales are among the tiniest. The coulter pine cone, the world’s largest pine cone, is a massive ovoid scaly cone that can weigh up to 11 pounds (5 kg).
All coniferous trees make cones, however pine cones are only found in the Pinus genus. A pine tree cannot reproduce without seed-containing pine cones. Pine cones are also quite attractive, with edible seeds or nuts inside. This article is a guide to identifying the various pine cone types.
The heaviest, biggest, smallest, and longest pine cones will be covered in this lesson. Furthermore, understanding pine cone characteristics may aid in the identification of these seed-filled cones.
What Are Pine Cones?
A pine tree’s reproduction is aided by the presence of pine cones. Woody bracts or scales connected to a central stalk protect pine nuts or seeds in each cone or strobilus. Male and female cones are found in several pine tree species, while one or the other is only produced by others.
Male vs. Female Pine Cones
Pinus contorta subsp. contorta male cones Male pine cones are larger, have a different shape, and are of a different color than female pine cones. The distinctive woody, scaly ovoid cones that hang loosely from pine trees are called female pine cones. The tiniest type of pine cones is a male pine cone. Pollen-containing yellowish, tube-like clusters of male pine cones Male cones on pine trees are therefore difficult to detect.
Little cylindrical structures that release pollen are known as male pine cones. As the pine seeds or nuts develop and mature in the cones, larger female cone scales open to receive pollen before closing. Only female pine cones are usually displayed in pictures.
Pine Cone Seeds
Female pine cones contain a single winged sand pine seed with a tear-shaped seed at the base. An inedible hard shell surrounds pine seeds. As the pine scales or plates open, the papery wing of the pine cone seed releases them in the wind. Each scale has two seeds, on average.
Do Pine Nuts Come From Pine Cones?
Pine nuts are edible seeds that come from pine cones of various species. They are shown in an up-close shot in their open shell. Sweet, nutty flavor of edible pine nuts is toasted to enhance their flavor. An oval or oblong form, the little ivory-white pine nut is about 0.5 inch (12 mm) long and white in color. The white pine nut is also known as pignoli, and its casing is hard.
Just around 20 pine species produce pine nuts that are suitable for harvesting, out of a total of 115 species. The Pinyon pine tree (Pinus edulis) produces the finest and most delicious pine nuts. Pine nuts are described as having a delicate, nutty flavor with sweet overtones. Others claim that pine nuts have a similar flavor to cashew nuts when eaten straight from the tree.
Pine Cone Facts
Pine cones have a variety of forms and sizes, and they open and close numerous times throughout the year. Fertilization and seed dispersion occur through the scales of the cones. Pine cones can live for up to ten years on the tree. Nonetheless, depending on the species, most cone types from pine trees take six to eight months to mature. However, it can take up to two years for a plant to mature.
Pine seeds get dispersed by the wind. In dry weather, pine cone scales open, allowing wind to transport seeds from the tree. As a result, there is greater pine tree species diversity. Little, stumpy barrel-shaped cones with a diameter of roughly 0.8 inch (2 cm) to long cylinder-like cones with a circumference of 20 inches (50 cm). Depending on the species, pine cones might have thin papery or thick woody scales.
Humidity levels in the air may also be shown by pine cones. When it’s wet, pine cones normally close up, and when it dries up, they open. Cone openings or closings also reveal how dry the earth is, and thus whether there is a chance of forest fire.
Pine Cone Identification
The shape, size, and color of a pine cone can help you identify it. For example, the conic, ovoid (egg-shaped), or cylindrical form of a woody, scaly tan-colored cone is normally overall. When the cones are closed, they usually have a rough, warty feel. When open, certain cones have upward-growing scales, whereas others spread horizontally.
Types of Pine Cones (with Pictures) – Identification
Let’s take a closer look at the sorts of pine cones that you’re likely to find in a coniferous and pine tree-covered woodland.
Coulter Pine Cone (Pinus coulteri)
One of the world’s biggest and most massive pine cones is the massive coulter pine cone. The enormous cones are 8 to 16 inches (20 to 40 cm) long and have an ovoid to cylindrical shape. The 4 to 11-pound (1.8 to 5-kilogram) pale brown cone is the most common.
The coulter pine cone is also known as the “widowmaker” because of its size and weight. These ginormous spiky pine cones can do serious harm if they fall on your skull. The male coulter pine cones are up to 1″ (25 mm) long and have a slender cylinder shape. Orange-brown to purple-brown pine cones are available in a variety of sizes.
Pinyon Pine Cone (Pinus edulis)
Pine nuts are allegedly produced by pinyon pine cones. Pine cones are globose in shape with broad scales and a pale yellowish-brown or reddish-brown color. When open, the resinous cones are 1.2″ to 2″ (3–5 cm) long and broad, up to 2.4″ (6 cm). Birds disperse the seeds of pinyon pine cones, which take two years to mature.
Pine nuts are egg-shaped and lack wings, hence they have hard shells. Some of the tiniest pine cones belong to native pine trees, such as male pine cones. They are 0.28″ (7 mm) long and have a yellowish to rusty brown coloration.
Monterey Pine Cone (Pinus radiata)
In coniferous forests, Monterey pine tree cones are frequently seen. The light brown color and egg-shaped structure of the pine cones distinguish them. Each winged, dark-brown seed is found in the recurved tips of the woody scales. The pine cones are 3 to 6 inches long (7.5 to 15 cm).
In North America, the most commonly planted pine trees are Evergreen Monterey pines. The pine tree has reddish-brown bark, cylindrical male pollen cones, and a loose pyramidal crown, among other distinguishing characteristics.
Lodgepole Pine Cone (Pinus contorta)
Pine cones from the lodgepole pine tree are conical when opening to a rounded to oval form in an orangey-red or tan hue. Lodgepole pine cones contain several winged black seeds and are 1″ to 3″ (2.5 – 7.5 cm) long. The egg-shaped pine cones may reach a height of 160 feet (50 meters) on trees.
Pollen cones on the lodgepole pine are tiny, cylindrical cones that range in length from 0.2 to 0.6 inches (5 to 15 mm). Gray or reddish-brown bark, yellow-green needle leaves, and black-winged seeds that are 0.4″ (1 cm) long are some of the other identifying characteristics of lodgepole pines.
Bristlecone Pine Cone (Pinus longaeva)
The little spine on each scale of the bristlecone pine cones distinguishes them from other pine cones. The pine cones are 2″ to 4″ (5 to 10 cm) in length and have an ovoid or cylindrical shape. The green or purple cones develop to an orange-brown color as they mature.
Bristlecone pine cones develop bristle-like spines and open to a width of 1.5 to 2.5 inches (4 to 6 cm) when mature. The 0.2 to 0.32 inch (5 to 8 mm) pear-shaped pale brown seeds have a 0.5 inch (12 mm) long wing.
Sugar Pine Cone (Pinus lambertiana)
The sugar pine cone is the longest of all conifer cones, measuring up to four feet in length. The scaly pine cones are long and cylindrical, ranging from 10 to 20 inches (25 to 50 cm). The long cylinder cones may grow to be 26 inches (66 cm) in length in certain instances. Flat, light-brown panels cover the cones.
One of the largest pine trees produces extremely long brown cones. The sugar pine has a distinctive, thin, conical flat-topped crown that distinguishes it from other pines and may grow to be 130 – 200 feet (40 – 60 meters) tall.
Eastern White Pine Cone (Pinus strobus)
Pine cones from the eastern white pine tree are slender, cylindrical resinous seed cones that grow 3″ to 6″ (7.5 – 15 cm) long and are lengthy and thin. Open scales with a rounded apex and reflexed tip characterize the easily recognized pine cones. Little seeds measuring 0.2 inch (5 mm) long can be found on the cone’s scales.
The whitish-gray bark distinguishes this coniferous tree, which is also known as the white pine tree. The needle leaves of the tree are blue-green in color and grow in bunches of five. The long slender brown cones hanging between evergreen leaves are the most common identifying feature of Eastern white pines.
Western White Pine Cone (Pinus monticola)
Long pine cones from the western white pine are identified as lance-shaped or cylindric seed cones in a creamy-brown color. The thin, flexible scales on the long pendulous pine cones are 4″ to 5″ (10 – 25 cm) long. On the trees, you’ll see cylindrical cones growing in groups.
The western white pine has bluish-green needle leaves, smooth thin gray bark, and a narrowly conical crown, among other distinguishing characteristics. The male cones, which are just 0.4″ to 0.6″ (10–15 mm) long, are oval and yellow.
Ponderosa pine Cone (Pinus ponderosa)
Pine cones from the ponderosa pine tree are tiny to medium-sized, dark-brown egg-shaped seed cones that take two years to develop. They are usually reddish-brown in color. The spirally growing scales on the ovoid pine cones are thick. A yellowish-brown pear-shaped seed is between each scale, and each pine cone is 2″ to 6″ (5 – 15 cm) in diameter.
This tall conifer is identified by its reddish scaly bark and is also known as the blackjack pine, western yellow pine, or filipinus pine. When the purple cones emerge and gradually turn brown, they are a sign of the slender, upright tree. Underneath this pine tree, there is usually a lot of cones on the ground.
Scots Pine Cone (Pinus sylvestris)
Pine cones on the Scots pine tree are pointed, ovoid-conic cones that develop red and turn a pale brown hue. They are tiny and have a rounded form. The flat, pyramidal scales of Scots pine cones are covered with black winged seeds that are dark brown or black. 1.2″ to 3″ (3 – 7.5 cm) long Scottish pine cones can be found.
A Scots pine tree has a distinct straight reddish-brown branchless stem with a pyramidal crown at the top of the tree, apart from being recognized by its open, woody scales. At the summit of the towering 110 ft. (35 m) tree, mature males are yellow or pink, but difficult to discern.
Mountain Pine Cone (Pinus mugo)
Little, symmetrical, barrel-like cones that grow up to 2″ (5 cm) long and 1.12″ (2.8 cm) wide are known as closed and open mountain pine cone cones. Mountain pine cones change color from purple to dark brown as they mature. The cone’s scales are black winged seeds that are thin, flat, and triangular in shape.
Little, shrub-like conifer trees that generate pine cones are known as mountain pine trees. Creeping pine, scrub mountain pine, and dwarf mountain pine are some of the other names for this dwarf pine tree. The tallest coniferous trees typically reach a height of 10 to 18 feet (3 to 5 meters).
Red Pine Cone (Pinus resinosa)
Little, egg-shaped reddish-brown seed cones that open into a globose form when mature are known as red pine cone. The lengthening open cones are about 1.5 to 2.5 inches (3.5 to 6 cm) long. The ovoid cones emerge purple and mature to a nut-brown color, as do many cold-hardy pines.
The tall, upright stem, smooth grayish-brown bark with crimson lines in the cracks, and a narrow, conical crown are all distinguishing features of a red pine tree. After two years of pollination, the red pine cones develop in clusters or as independent pairs.
Jack Pine Cone (Pinus banksiana)
When the cone is closed, its unique form helps to identify the tree. The yellowish-gray color of the smooth pine cones darkens to a nut-brown color. In high temperatures, the distinctive pine cones open. These pine cones are about 2 inches (5 cm) long and have a conical shape.
The cones of jack pine trees point forward along the limb, rather than the typical dangling cones of other pine tree species, and this is a distinctive characteristic. As a result, knowing the growth pattern of the cones may help you differentiate jack pine cones from other pine trees.
Virginia pine Cone (Pinus virginiana)
Virginia pine cone are narrow, egg-shaped brown seed cones with a reddish-brown color. Each scale has a prickle on it. Medium-sized, attractive pine cones may stay on trees for years and are 1.6 to 2.8 inches (4 to 7 cm) long. On the spreading scales of the pine cones, there are distinct prickles.
Short, twisted needle leaves growing in pairs, rough, reddish bark, and a medium height of 30–60 feet (9–18 meters) are some of the discriminating characteristics of the Virginia pine tree.
How to Plant Pine Cone Seeds
It is feasible to grow a pine tree from seed, but it is difficult. Pine seeds may be gathered from fallen pine cones in late fall. Pine seeds look like a tiny, winged structure sandwiched between pine cone scales. Shake the pine cones upside down to remove the winged pine seeds. Next, put the pine seeds in a bowl of water and collect the ones that sink to the bottom. After that, you may either seed the pine seeds right away or dry them and keep them in an airtight container.
Place a seed in a small pot filled with freshly dry potting soil and place it indoors to germinate pine seeds. With the tip of the pine seed pointed downward, you should press it just below the surface. Lastly, keep the soil moist by placing the pots on a sunny windowsill. Seeds should take around a month to sprout. You can transplant pine seedlings to your garden when they are between 6″ and 12″ (15–30 cm) tall.