Butterflies are one of the most well-known insects, despite the fact that there are millions of them. Butterflies may be found all across the globe, from the tropics to your own garden, some of which are uncommon.
The Life Cycle of a Butterfly
Life processes are similar in butterflies and moths. Metamorphosis is the term used to describe their life cycle. It’s made up of old Greek terms that imply “change in form.”
An insect may experience two different types of metamorphosis. Insects that go through incomplete metamorphosis include crickets, dragonflies, and cockroaches. Since all butterflies and moths will have this variety, we concentrate on full metamorphosis. This process has four stages, which are listed below.
I. Butterfly Life Cycle – Egg
Adult female butterflies first place their eggs on plants. Once the insects hatch, they choose the plants based on what they need to eat. At that point, the insect will eat the plant.
The eggs of butterflies are often tiny. Depending on the speed of their life cycle and migratory pattern, butterflies will lay them at any time during the spring and summer.
II. Butterfly Life Cycle – Caterpillar (Larva)
The caterpillar is a caterpillar, whether it’s a moth or butterfly species, and is the common name for the larval stage. Caterpillars have one driving ambition: to consume voraciously. They’ll develop quickly and lose their skin four times before reaching the next phase of development.
III. Butterfly Life Cycle – Pupa
A transition period is the pupa stage. They change there in a way that is significant. The caterpillar stops eating once it has fully developed. They create a chrysalis around them, which may be colorful at first but eventually becomes transparent.
The location, form, and color of the chrysalis may change depending on the species. For certain species, the stage may last from a few weeks to a couple of years.
IV. Butterfly Life Cycle – Adult
The adult butterfly emerges at the end of the pupal stage as a fully formed butterfly. Mating and egg-laying are the responsibilities of the adult. This is often supported by their migratory path, which will take them to mating or egg-laying sites where they are needed.
Only a few of the adult species survive for more than a few weeks. Several animals, on the other hand, will sleep throughout the winter and deposit their eggs in the spring.
The Impact of Climate Change on Butterflies
Climate change effects are often indicated by butterflies. They’re vulnerable to their environment. For certain biomes and climatic conditions, they are frequently highly adapted.
Monarch butterflies, for example, have been used as climate change bioindicators. In comparison to their previous typical migration pattern, their migratory habits have altered dramatically.
Overwintering monarch butterflies have to find woodlands. These animals must have temperatures that are low enough to inhibit but not so low as to kill them. Nonetheless, in the fall, there are greater temperatures, as well as more erratic freezing episodes. The butterflies’ ability to survive over the winter has been jeopardized by these factors.
It becomes even more difficult when humans destroy important landscapes. The changing environment is beyond the adaptability of sensitive species.
Climate change is causing butterflies to shift their migratory pattern, which is one of the modifications. Several butterflies, for example, have been forced to migrate from their breeding locations in the south. In order to deal with increasing temperatures, they might ascend in height.
Climate change will ultimately have an impact on almost every aspect of animal lives, including their habitats. That will include the following:
- Life cycles
- Flight times
- Plant and insect interaction
The misalignment of pollinating species and their food plants is known as plant and insect interaction. Disruption of a butterfly’s foodplants, for example, has been documented. Checkerspots and their caterpillar’s food plants are included in this category.
These connections are destined to have ramifications right around them as they break down. As a consequence, there has been renewed interest in larger Lepidoptera research in recent years. We can better understand what we can do for them by understanding their needs better.
Five Interesting Butterfly Facts
1| The origin of the word “butterfly” has to do with witches and magic.
The term is thought to be derived from Old English etymologists. ‘Butterfleoge’ was the original term, and there are various hypotheses as to its origin. One of the most popular is that it relates to witches of legend.
Witches were said to resemble butterflies in size and form, according to mythology. They would steal milk and butter from farms in this manner. As a result, the insects got the moniker butterfly.
The name might be derived from a Pieridae family member, according to another theory. The Brimstone butterfly (Gonepteryx rhamni) was dubbed the “butter-colored fly” by early naturalists in Britain.
2| The Cabbage White is likely the most common butterfly in North America.
The white, cream, yellow, and black marbled wings of the Cabbage White butterfly make it a mid-sized butterfly. Greenish marbling on the wings is also possible. It is not only the most frequent butterfly in the United States, but it is also one of the most frequent butterflies throughout the world.
3| The Lotis Blue (Lycaeides argyrognomon lotis) is one of the rarest butterflies in the world.
The Lotis Blue Butterfly has a tiny wingspan of around an inch (2.5 cm) and is a little butterfly. These butterflies may be found across most of northern North America and are stunning blue. Because of the fires that swept through most of their natural peat habitats, they are now endangered butterflies.
This butterfly has been alleged to be extinct, according to reports. Even after years of pulling a disappearing act, it has been rediscovered many times. Since 1994, the butterfly has not been sighted in the wild. Several conservationists think they may be surviving on California’s northern coast in isolated locations.
4| Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing is the largest butterfly in the world.
Queen Alexandra’s Birdwing is the world’s largest butterfly. They have a wingspan of more than 30 cm. A typical butterfly species is about 10 times smaller than these butterflies.
Papua New Guinea is the natural habitat for these butterflies. They were first found in 1906, and they have been threatened with extinction ever since. Their survival is threatened by the rapidly expanding palm oil industry. The butterfly’s density had dropped to barely ten individuals per square kilometer.
Fortunately, there are today concentrated conservation activities. They assist these important species in being rescued and advancing.
5| The Western Pygmy Blue Butterfly is the smallest known butterfly in the world.
The world’s smallest known butterfly is the Western Pygmy Blue Butterfly. They have a wingspan of 1.3 cm, which is half an inch (0.5 cm). They may be found all over the Americas, including Australia. The bodies and inner halves of their wings are slate blue in color for these tiny butterflies. The wing exterior is brown, with black rings and white strips.
There are roughly 17,500 butterfly species in the world. Surprisingly, the United States has only 750 of them. If you’re on a species-identifying spree, we’ve highlighted a few of the most common species you might encounter. To make the classification system more straightforward, we’ve also summarized some of the complicated elements.
The Classification of All Different Butterfly Types
The Insecta class of butterflies includes them. The Lepidoptera order is then used to remove all butterflies and moths. Butterflies belong to seven different families. There are tens of thousands of species on these islands.
How are Butterflies Different from Moths?
Butterflies and moths are closely related, but there are significant differences between the two. Both physical and scientific definitions are included in this list.
The order Lepidoptera includes both butterflies and moths, whereas the class Insecta includes all insects. Moths and butterflies will be divided into separate families, subfamilies, and genera from there.
In general, it’s simple to differentiate between moths and butterflies. Brightly colored butterflies are common. Moths have a tendency to be dull, giving them more effective concealment.
Butterflies and moths look a lot alike physically. The head, thorax, and abdomen are the three primary body parts of both animals. A set of forewings and a set of hindwings are found on their six legs and four wings. Their wings are covered in scales, and they both have them.
Antennae are one of the distinguishing features of butterflies and moths. Straight antennae with a nodule at the end characterize a butterfly. Feathery antennae are found on moths. Feathering may be slight or it may be obvious.
Finally, once a butterfly lands, it folds its wings together. The resting posture of a moth, on the other hand, is to open its wings widely.
The Different Types of Butterflies Breeds
1.0 Family Hedylidae: American Moth-Butterflies
Between butterflies and moths, Hedylidae moth-butterflies occupy a fascinating grey area.
They were thought to be a surviving sister group of the butterfly superfamily. Naturalists, on the other hand, merged the group into a single genus called Macrosoma in 1986. The only butterfly family that does not belong to the Papilionoidea superfamily is this genus, which is a new group of butterflies.
1.1 Macrosoma hyacinthina
This moth-like butterfly was first described by naturalists in 1905. It used to be classified under the genus Lasiopates. In 1986, it was included in the Macrosoma genus, along with the others. Its coloration makes it resemble a moth, despite having the defining features of a butterfly.
It’s a neotropical butterfly, as are the rest of the species in the genus. Costa Rica, Ecuador, and a portion of Brazil are home to this species. They don’t migrate in a pattern.
2.0 Family Hesperiidae: Skippers
Another genus of Lepidoptera that blurs the line between moths and butterflies is skippers. They’re called butterflies since they fly during the day. The wings and bodies of many of them are brown in tone. For an untrained eye, this coloring may make it difficult to tell the difference between moths and butterflies.
Skippers come in over 3,500 different types across the globe. They are found in Central and South America’s Neotropical regions.
2.1 Coliadinae: Awls, Awlets and Policemen
All butterfly species from the Old World tropics belong to the Coliadinae subfamily. This subfamily contains 150 different skipper species. Several skipper butterflies are included in these.
2.1.1 ORANGE-TAIL AWL (BIBASIS SENA)
The Skippers family includes the Orange-Tailed Awlet (also known as the pale green awlet). They can be found all throughout Southeast Asia. The Bengal area is where they are most often found. They’re uncommon in most of India. Their population density, however, rises as you go south from Myanmar across the Malay Peninsula.
The upper wings of these butterflies are tan to dark brown. With a stripe of brilliant white and blue, their underwings are more vivid. They have an orange underbody and legs, as well as a bright red hindwing.
2.2 Euschemoninae: Regent Skipper
Just one species belongs to this subfamily of skippers. The Pyrginae subfamily was previously represented by the Regent skipper. They do, however, have distinguishing patterns and dispersion. In 1897, they were moved to their genus by natural vsts. Since no other species is like them, they have not moved since then.
2.2.1 REGENT SKIPPER (EUSCHEMON RAFFLESIA)
The Regent Skipper stands out from the rest. Their wings and torso are totally black, with the exception of white antlers. The pattern of yellows and light blue that lies overlaid is spotted. The tip of their body’s final segment is likewise bright red. Only Australians reside in the Regent Skipper.
2.3 Eudaminae: Dicot Skippers
In the Neotropics, the Eudaminae subfamily may be found. Certain genera have an extended zone that reaches into more northern latitudes of North America. Due to its strange position in East Asia, one genus may eventually be moved to a different subfamily.
This subfamily contains a total of 55 genera. Yet, we’ve chosen only the most widespread and type-species from among them all.
2.3.1 BROWN LONGTAIL (URBANUS PROCNE)
Argentina, Central America, and southern Texas are home to the Brown Longtail. They have a 1.5 to 1.9-inch (37 to 48 mm) wingspan and are mid-sized butterflies.
The butterflies that reside in southern Texas have received the majority of attention in this research. Brown Longtails can be found in three generations per year. Because they solely feed on non-commercial grasses, the larvae aren’t harmful.
2.4 Pyrginae: Spread Winged and Firetips
Some of the most beautiful patterns are seen on these skippers. The majority of their hues are brownish in tone. Spread-Winged Skippers is their common name. Their resting posture is with their wings wide open, unlike other butterflies.
This subfamily was created by Hermann Burmeister in 1878. For years, the subfamily had dramatic changes. The links between the genera in this subfamily have been clarified thanks to new technology.
2.4.1 TROPICAL CHECKERED SKIPPER (PYRGUS OILEUS)
From the subfamily, the Tropical Checkered Skipper is a regular visitor. It’s part of the Pyrginae subfamily, which contains many genera and tribes. It belongs to the genus Pyrgus, one of them.
The bodies of these skippers are lovely, with a fading dusty blue coloration. The blue fades to reveal their brown, orange, and white speckled designs. They prefer to live near their food plants. Mallows, as well as nectar from plant blooms, are examples of larval stages.
2.5 Heteropterinae: Skipperlings
In terms of size and diversity, the skipperling subfamily is somewhat small. Skipperlings are divided into 15 genera, with roughly 150 species described. Some monotypic species are found in more of them than in others.
2.5.1 LARGE CHEQUERED SKIPPER (HETEROPTERUS MORPHEUS)
One of the most well-known skipperlings is the large chequered skipper. The genus Heteropterus is monotypic, and they are the sole species in it. Surprisingly, the people of these nations are mostly cut off from one another. They may be found from Europe to Russia and the Palearctic, through Central Asia, and Korea.
A yellow backdrop with white specks surrounded by a black ring surrounds these skipperlings. Their wings, as well as their bodies, swing between white and black on the outer border. They are drab on the top side, but it is rarely seen.
One of the butterfly’s most notable features is its flight pattern. It zig-zags and stumbles through the air, almost as if it is intoxicated.
2.6 Hesperiinae: Grass Skippers
Banded skippers are a type of grass skipper. The subfamily was founded in 1809 by Pierre Andre Latreille. This subfamily is the biggest skipper butterfly subfamily, with over 2,000 species. Except for New Zealand, this subfamily’s species are found all over the globe. Native to North America, 137 of these species exist.
2.6.1 SWARTHY SKIPPER (NASTRA LHERMINIER)
The Swarthy Skipper is one of the few native North American skippers. In North America’s East and Southeast, their population is dense. Their wings are greenish-brown, and their bodies are framed by light yellow veins.
Because of their tendency to perch on grass stalks close to the ground, these butterflies are known as grass skippers. Adults drink nectar from low-growing flowers and feed on Little Bluestem grass.
2.7 Megathyminae: Giant Skippers
The Giant Skippers are the skippers’ next subfamily. This title is applied to a number of different species. Moreover, it’s debatable whether the subfamily is real. This is a source of contention among some authorities, who divide it from other subfamilies.
These species are bigger than most other Skipper species, as one would expect from the name. Butterflies with thick bodies make up the majority of their range. Brown colorings with yellow markings are prevalent among them.
2.7.1 ARIZONA GIANT SKIPPER (AGATHYMUS ARYXNA)
The Arizona Giant Skipper is browner in color than the other species of Giant Skippers. Arizona, as well as northern Mexico and southwest New Mexico, is where they call home. Upper Sonoran savannas are preferred by these butterflies.
The Palmer’s Agave plant is preferred by the Arizona Giant Skipper larva. The larval stage will bore into the base of the plant’s succulent leaves. Adults don’t seem to be interested in nectar. Instead, they hunt for electrolytes in the canyon mudholes.
2.8 Trapezitinae: Australian Skippers
There are approximately 60 species in the Trapezitinae subfamily, divided into 16 genera. Only New Guinea and Australia have these species. Most of these species have not had thorough studies and research. This means that there is much more to learn about these animals’ habits. From 1819 until 1994, the genera were established and arranged.
3.0 Family Lycaenidae: Blues, Hairstreaks and Coppers
The Lycaenidae family is the second-largest family of the Lepidoptera butterflies. There are more than 6,000 species that fall under this family worldwide. Altogether, the members of these families constitute about 30% of all known butterflies.
Gossamer-winged butterflies are their common name. This family contains seven subfamilies in total. Under each of these, we’ll take a look at some of the most popular butterflies.
3.1 Curetinae: Sunbeams
The Sunbeams, which are the brightest lights of the butterfly, are our first focus. They can be found all over Southeast Asia. This subfamily’s only genus at the moment is the curetis genus. Over 25 species have been identified, with some of them being thought to be extinct.
3.1.1 INDIAN SUNBEAM (CURETIS THETIS)
A butterfly with two faces, to put it another way. Their wings have a brilliant orange border with a black edge on the upper side. Their wings have a chalky white underside. Peninsular India and the Himalayas are home to this butterfly. Because they are reliant on precipitation, they cannot live in the region’s desert climate. They’re capable of surviving on a variety of food sources.
3.2 Miletinae: Harvesters
Harvesters is the term for Milletinae butterflies, but woolly legs is another name for them.
The presence of predatory larvae distinguishes this family from other butterfly subfamilies. They aren’t plant-eating, hence the name phytophagous. Instead, ants and aphids are devoured.
This family of insects appears to have a complicated symbiotic relationship with ants. Nonetheless, since we know little about their ecology, it’s difficult to understand.
3.2.1 MOTH BUTTERFLY (LIPHYRA BRASSOLIS)
South and Southeast Asia are home to the Moth Butterfly. Because of the presence of predatory larvae, they are one of the subfamily’s exemplar species. The larvae of this butterfly consume ant larvae. They ultimately develop into one of the Lycaenid butterfly species, with a wingspan of up to nine inches.
Even though they have a broad range of distribution, they are rather unique species. Specimens of the butterfly are a prized collector’s species because to their rarity.
Another unusual group is the Poritiinae subfamily. Instead of conventional plants, they have a predilection for algae and lichen. The Poritiini and Liptenini tribes are the first to be divided within this subfamily. Before breaking the genera out, they are separated by subtribe.
Asia is home to the majority of these species. They stretch from the Philippines to Malaysia, Indonesia, India, and beyond.
Just 17 genera have been recognized as a subfamily rather than a tribe in the next subfamily, and they were just recently renamed. This family of Copper butterflies includes some species. Africa and Southeast Asia are home to the majority of butterflies.
3.5 Theclinae: Hairstreaks and Elfins
The Theclinae butterfly family includes two types of butterflies: hairsreaks and elfins. The species are predominantly tropical in origin. Several of them will have a blue tint on their upper wing to emit light. The ultimate objective is to make capturing them more difficult for predators.
3.5.1 GREAT PURPLE HAIRSTREAK (ATLIDES HALESUS)
One of the North American subfamily’s species is the Great Purple Hairstreak. They are one of the south’s most stunning butterflies. They don’t have any true purple on them, despite their name of the Great Purple Hairstreak. Instead, their wings are black with blue, green, and orange dots.
3.6 Lycaeninae: Coppers
Many Copper butterflies belong to the Lycaeninae subfamily. Yet, many connections between the species remain unknown. The Heliophorini and Lycaenini tribes are currently part of the Lycaeninae subfamily. Sapphires are the butterflies mentioned in the first. The typical coppers belong to the Lycaenini tribe.
3.6.1 SCARCE COPPER (LYCAENA VIRGAUREAE)
Unlike the name would suggest, the Scarce Copper is not that scarce. They range from the Arctic Circle to the north to the Mediterranean to the south, and may be found across Central Europe. They’ve even been discovered in Mongolia, far The under and upper wings of these butterflies are lovely. Their bright orange upper wings are bordered by a black ring. The wings have a lighter orange underside with black freckles that cover them.
The under and top wings of these butterflies are stunning. Their bright orange upper wings have a black border around the edge. The wings have black freckles spanning the entire underside, which is a lighter orange.
3.7 Polyommatinae: Blues
The Blue family is quite varied. Even now, there are numerous taxa whose connections remain unclear. They, on the other hand, are getting sorted out and becoming more noticeable. This subfamily contains four major tribes, including:
3.7.1 COMMON BLUE BUTTERFLY (POLYOMMATUS ICARUS)
Polyommatinae is a butterfly tribe that includes the Common Blue Butterfly. They’re a common sight throughout the world, especially in Asia. The Palearctic butterfly can be found all across the region.
The top wing of the male is bluer, with black and white stripes running around the exterior. The female has a blue dusting along their bodies that is close to white. It turns brown with orange dots around the edge. Both men’s and women’s wings have a similar underside. They have black and white specks with orange splashes on their light tan bodies.
4.0 Family Nymphalidae: Brush-footed Butterflies
One of the most diverse families is the Nymphalidae. Because they are often the biggest, brightest, and most beautiful butterflies, they are also the butterflies that most people think of.
This family’s phylogeny is rather difficult to understand. The five major clades of these butterflies, which include:
4.1 Libytheine Clade: Snout Butterflies
For a good reason, these butterflies are called snout butterflies. The butterfly’s labial palps are long and resemble a snout on the butterfly’s head. The majority of animals in this clade are small and have drab brown tones. Their wings, which resemble dead leaves when closed, help them stay hidden since they are color and form.
4.2. Danaine Clade: Milkweed Butterflies
Some of the most well-known butterflies in North America belong to the Danaine Clade. Because they lay their eggs on milkweed plants, these butterflies are known as milkweed butterflies. This clade includes approximately 300 species that can be found all around the globe. North America is home to four of these species.
Milkweed, Wanderer, and Common Tiger are all terms used to describe monarch butterflies. In North America, these butterflies are perhaps the most well-known. They migrate from Canada to Central Mexico throughout the year, and their migratory path is well-known.
Orange wings with black veins and bands encircling the monarch butterfly’s outer wings are visible. Their climate makes them vulnerable. As a result, their migratory and life cycle processes have been disrupted by climate change.
4.3 Satyrine Clade: Canopy, Brown, Owl and Satyr Butterflies
Tropical, alpine, and temperate butterflies are all found in the Sayrine Clade. The Brassolini butterfly family has a distinct characteristic. They are crepuscular rather than diurnal. Some tribes have spines, while others are predators’ mimics. They use these to survive.
4.3.1 NORTHERN PEARLY-EYE (ENODIA ANTHEDON)
To deceive predators, the Northern Pearly-Eye employs a protective mechanism over its wings. The upper and underside of their wings are covered in black and tan spots that look like eyes, which cover both surfaces. A predator will be less likely to attack the more vulnerable sections of their body in that way.
These butterflies may be found from Canada to Nebraska, as far south as Alabama and Mississippi. Before pupating in the spring, they feed on grass and overwinters in the larval stage.
4.4 Heliconiinae Clade: Colorful Tropical Butterflies
A group of colorful tropical butterflies known as heliconiinae. The tribes and genera that should be included in this tribe have been the subject of a number of disagreements. Some of them are still being updated, and they’re waiting for confirmation.
Colorful tropical butterflies make up the majority of this clade’s species. Mullerian mimicry is a kind of mimicry that they employ. Because of this resemblance, predators believe these creatures are bitter or even poisonous when they first see them.
4.4.1 GREAT SPANGLED FRITILLARY (SPEYERIA CYBELE)
One of the few non-tropical butterflies in this clade is the Great Spangled Fritillary. Instead, they’re butterflies from North America. Their brown and gold wings are speckled with black and white dots, and they come in a variety of styles.
This species has a wide range of appearances due to the fact that it contains numerous subspecies. Others have black markings rather than brown markings and are more vivid orange. The larval host plant for this butterfly is usually native violets. The nectar of the flowers is consumed by the adult.
4.5 Nymphaline Clade: Emperor and Brush-Footed Butterflies
The heliconiine clade is a sibling group to the nymphaline. Several of these species migrate throughout the globe, and some
4.5.1 MILBERT’S TORTOISESHELL (AGLAIS MILBERTI)
The Fire-Rim Tortoiseshell is another name for the Milbert’s tortoiseshell. They are the only genus of their kind to have a North American member. They prefer damp places beside roadways and in fields and may be found all throughout the country.
These butterflies flit around woodland roads, making them easy to spot. It will occasionally spread its wings when it lands to display its coloration. Cream, blue, orange, tan, and brown are a lovely combination in the butterfly.
5.0 Family Papilionidae: Swallowtails
Swallowtail butterflies are a highly desired species across the globe. Their wings are distinctive, and their color patterns are vibrant. Around 550 species have been identified, the majority of which are tropical. Yet, with the exception of Antarctica, members of this family may be found on every continent.
The genera belong to two major superfamilies of swallowtails. The Papilionidae Swallowtails, Parnassia, and others are included. Some of the most popular swallowtail species are included in this group.
5.1 Parnassia Swallowtails
Mountain environments are home to these lovely butterflies. Their genera’s habitats might include other environments. Arid deserts, for example, are favored by the Hypermnestra genus. Humid woods are preferred by the Luehdorfia genus.
5.1.1 MOUNTAIN APOLLO (PARNASSIUS APOLLO)
Apollo is the name of the deity who inspired the Mountain Apollo butterfly. Why it is called after the deity is little understood. Hills and flowery alpine meadows are preferred habitats for the mountain species. This species group contains several subspecies that have different climatic preferences.
White butterflies with partially transparent wings make up the majority of this species. White and red patches are surrounded by a black ring. Black dots cover their front wings. Their wingspan varies between 2.4 and 3.4 inches (6.2 and 8.6 cm).
5.2 Papilionidae Swallowtails
The Papilioninae family is found all over the globe. They may be found all around the globe, although the majority of them are in the tropics. There are 480 species in this subfamily, with 27 of them occurring in North America. This subfamily contains three tribes, one of which is:
5.2.1 TIGER SWALLOWTAIL (PAPILIO GLAUCUS)
A butterfly found in eastern North America, the Tiger Swallowtail. They’re some of the area’s most well-known butterflies, and they’re gorgeous. They range across eastern ecosystems, making their home. It will reach as far north as Manitoba, Canada’s Winnipeg. Females will give birth to three broods from spring to autumn.
The male butterfly has less vibrant colors than the female, despite its attractiveness. They’re both yellow with black patterns on their wings, which are the most noticeable feature. The back of the female’s hindwings have numerous bright blue and red spots in various hues.
6.0 Family Pieridae: White Butterflies and Allies
The Pieridae family is neither the most diverse nor the most superfamily-wide butterfly group. There are approximately 1,100 species in the genus. The majority of these species are located in tropical Africa and Asia. Some, however, are found in North America and Eurasia.
Yellow, white, and orange with black markings are the most common combinations of Pierid butterflies. Their appearance is distinguishing due to the pigmentations. Unfortunately, this butterfly family includes a slew of pests that cause agricultural damage.
6.1 Diamorphine: Mimic Sulphurs
Since most mimics don’t have the color of the family, they stand out in this group. Between seven genera, there are approximately 100 species. The majority of these are found in the Neotropical countries of the globe. In North America, however, only the genus Leptidea occurs.
6.2 Pierinae: Whites
The largest subfamily in this family is Pierinae. They include several Whites, a group of butterflies that many people refer to. White butterflies vary in color, from those with the typical colorful display of warm reds, yellows, and oranges to others.
6.2.1 CABBAGE WHITE (PIERIS RAPAE)
The White Cabbage Butterfly is a gorgeous example of white butterflies and is a mid-sized butterfly species. Europe, New Zealand, and North America are all home to them. The small black dots in the center of the white wings’ sea are a telltale sign of an adult butterfly. They have a tendency to be black or brown in color.
Several edible brassicas have caterpillars, which are not poisonous, as a pest. The imported cabbageworm is the common name for this insect. Cabbage, bok choy, broccoli, and kale are among the food plants they consume. Several individuals think the butterfly originated in the Mediterranean. The butterfly, on the other hand, has expanded globally over the previous two centuries. It was caused by chance encounters.
6.3 Coliadinae: Sulphurs and Yellows
Due to their color, the Coliadinae family includes butterflies known as sulfurs and yellows. This subfamily contains approximately 300 species. This subfamily, which ranges from Mexico to Canada, contains roughly 36 species and lives in North America.
6.3.1 SOUTHERN DOGFACE (ZERENE CESONIA)
One of the species that exists in North America is the Southern Dogface. South America was also colonized by them. Because they have sulfur yellow wings, they are an excellent example of sulfurs and yellows. Their front wings feature a distinctive pattern that resembles a dog’s face, and they have a band of black around the outside.
Short-grass prairie hills are good places to look for these butterflies. They may also be seen flitting about open woodlands and along roadways. Males are more active than females throughout the day. They are active flight partners and patrol for females.
6.4 Pseudopontiinae: Previously Monotypic Subfamily
This subfamily has recently undergone significant changes. It is a monotypic butterfly genus that was formerly monotypic. It now has a large number of butterflies in it. These creatures live in Africa’s wet forests, where they may be found. Pseudopontia butterflies come in a variety of species.
The butterfly species lives in wet forestlands in Africa’s tropical regions. They must be distinguishable from one another due to the veins that run over their wings. There isn’t much known about them because of their isolated regions.
7.0 Family Riodinidae: Metalmarks
The metalmarks are the final of the seven butterfly families. The metallic-looking speckles on most species’ wings are the source of the name. This family contains 1,532 species, divided into 146 genera. The majority of them live in the neotropical world, although there are a few in the Palearctic, Afrotropics, and Australasian kingdoms as well.
Metalmarks belong to the Nemeobiinae subfamily, which is one of two. The Reiodinidae family’s Old World members make up this family completely. Only within the past few years have certain New World butterflies been included into the subfamily.
7.1.1 DUKE OF BURGUNDY (HAMEARIS LUCINA)
The only member of the Hamearis genus is the Duke of Burgundy butterfly. European butterflies are the butterfly species. Because of their chequered pattern, they were formerly known as fritillary. That matches the dress of genuine fritillaries from the Nymphalidae family, in a very close way.
The underwings of these butterflies are burgundy with a pattern of yellow, black, and white that is checkered. They have yellow and white chequering on their upper wings, which are dark burgundy.
Metalmark butterflies belong to the Riodininae subfamily. Even so, there is some uncertainty regarding these butterflies’ connectivities.
7.2.1 PERIANDER METALMARK (RHETUS PERIANDER)
The butterfly’s wings have a metallic luster, which is exemplified by the Periander Metalmark. Their upper wings are pointed, and their hind wings have a little tail, giving them a distinctive form. They have bright metallic blue stripes bordered by black on either side of their upper wings. White and orange patches are among them.
This butterfly has five subspecies. From Brazil to Colombia, Honduras to Costa Rica, they are separated by the area where they live.